Air conditioning and cooling system compressor are utilized to remove the heat from the vapor refrigerant from the evaporator of the air-conditioning systems. This is achieved by compressor compressing or crushing the vapor into a little volume at high temperature.
The 5 different types of air conditioning compressor which are commonly used Bristol compressors are :
The reciprocating compressor utilizes piston to compressor the refrigerant driven by a crankshaft in a straight line to and fro movement. This rotational movement is accomplished by the utilization of an electric motor and the build is very similar to that of a vehicle engine. The piston moves inside the cylinder. The refrigerant inside the cylinder is compressed due to the reciprocating motion of the piston. Reciprocating compressors are relatively less costly, easy to install. With large output ranges, they are capable of reaching extremely high pressures.
Scroll compressors utilize two offset spiral disks coupled with each other to compress the refrigerant. Upper disk remains still whereas the lower disk moves in a circular fashion. Scroll compressors are relatively noiseless, highly efficient and operates smoothly. It can smoothly operate with liquid refrigerants. But, scroll compressors cannot be easily fixed because of their hermetic design. They are incapable of rotating both the directions. Their applications are seen in automobile air conditioners and commercial chillers.
In the Screw air compressor, the refrigerant is compressed between the two helical gears or screws. They are known to produce high pressure for a limited amount of gas and also consume less power than reciprocating compressors. They have few moving parts and hence they have low initial and maintenance cost. They have difficulty in operating in a dirty environment, they have high rotational speeds and have a shorter life span compared to other air compressors.
Rotary compressors have the refrigerants between two rotating elements, like gears, between which the refrigerant is compressed. The refrigerants are taken in and compressed simultaneously and hence are very efficient. With very few moving parts and less rotational speeds, they are good for performing in dirty environments. The initial cost and the maintenance costs are also less. But, they are limited to smaller volumes of gas and are low pressure compressors.
Centrifugal compressors, as the name suggests harnesses the rotating action of the impeller wheel to exert centrifugal force on refrigerant inside a round chamber. They compress large volumes of the refrigerant to low pressures. Since, the compressive force generated by an impeller wheel is minimal, so systems that use centrifugal compressors usually employ two or more stages in series generate high compressive forces. Centrifugal compressors have simple design, less number of moving parts, and are energy efficient.
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